Kirill Petrenko and Patricia Kopatchinskaja
09 Mar 2019
Concerto for Violin and Orchestra, op. 36 (38 min.)
Patricia Kopatchinskaja violin
Duo No. 1 for violin and cello (5 min.)
Patricia Kopatchinskaja violin, Bruno Delepelaire cello
Jeu for violin and clarinet (3 min.)
Patricia Kopatchinskaja violin, Andreas Ottensamer clarinet
Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky
Symphony No. 5 in E minor, op. 64 (52 min.)
Patricia Kopatchinskaja talks about Schoenberg’s Violin Concerto (13 min.)
Kirill Petrenko in conversation with Stanley Dodds (28 min.)
Schoenberg once jokingly remarked about his Violin Concerto that the music was intended for a new kind of “violinist with 6 fingers”. The work, which was dedicated to Dr. Anton von Webern, was one of the first major compositions after Schoenberg emigrated to the USA and is characterised not only by the twelve-tone technique, but also by its intricately interwoven, dense composition and its brilliant solo part. Patricia Kopatchinskaja, the soloist in this programme, approached this piece in an unusual and very refreshing way: via the melodrama Pierrot lunaire, a milestone on Schoenberg’s path to a new musical language. The violinist studied the part of the speaking voice – in which she appears in the Late Night concert on 9 March – and discovered that many elements of the piece could also be found in the Violin Concerto, such as the pointed articulation, the sound painting, the wit, the tenderness and the constant change of mood. “The tonal language of the concerto is new and expressive, like Schoenberg’s pictures,” she reveals, “but the form is old, like a plush sofa, on which you can imagine escaping the difficulties of the solo part as a six-fingered Pierrot in a dodecaphonic dream.”
After the interval, Kirill Petrenko has programmed Piotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky’s Fifth Symphony, which is one of the composer’s most popular creations today. However, this success was unexpected as the work, despite its successful German premiere in Hamburg in 1889, had been “completely forgotten” two years later as the music critic Nikolay Kashkin reported in his reminiscences of Tchaikovsky, published in 1896. He then continued that “Arthur Nikisch, the present Kapellmeister of the Leipzig Gewandhaus and the Philharmonic concerts in Berlin, took the symphony on, and performed it in London, Leipzig, Berlin and Moscow with such brilliant success that one can hope that it will take its proper place in the symphonic repertoire”. The action of Nikisch, who Tchaikovsky revered as a “master of his craft” and as a “magician in front of the orchestra”, did not fail to have its effect. More and more conductors took on the work with the result that today, Tchaikovsky’s Fifth is one of the world’s most frequently performed symphonies, alongside Mozart’s Jupiter Symphony and Beethoven’s Eroica.
On Anxieties and Overcoming Them
Works by Arnold Schoenberg and Peter Tchaikovsky
A first solo concerto: Arnold Schoenberg’s Violin Concerto op. 36
Arnold Schoenberg was already 62 years old and had been in American exile for three years when he completed his first concerto for solo instrument and orchestra. The reason he found it difficult to compose a work in this genre is obvious: the element of virtuosity which is always implied, the display of dexterity, the star cult associated with solo playing – all of that must have been repugnant to him. If anything, the “symphonic concerto” as Johannes Brahms had treated it could be a model – a form that was a synthesis of scepticism towards the heroism of the individual and the equality of the parts resulting from dodecaphony. Thus, both of his solo concertos – that for violin and that for piano, composed a few years later – are naturally anything but circus showpieces. They are difficult, however, and call for brilliant musicians. Even Jascha Heifetz did not want to attempt the Violin Concerto, and Schoenberg conceded that one probably needed a left hand with six fingers in order to rise to its challenges.
In fact, it is a concerto conceived in three sections with the sequence of movements that was usual for centuries: a moderately fast first movement, a slow middle movement and a brisk finale. The two outer movements are approximately equal in length, each a good twelve minutes, and the middle movement is somewhat shorter. The first is in sonata form, the second in three-part song form, the third a rondo with a cyclical reference to the opening Poco allegro. All three movements contain sections which could be connected to the traditional ideas of exposition, development and recapitulation, but – as always with Schoenberg – the “development”, that is, the process of transformation and modification of the motivic material, already begins with the first note, and when a theme is taken up again, it naturally never appears unchanged. The first entrance of the solo violin immediately introduces, in alternation with the violas and cellos, a motif of dotted crotchets, quavers and minims whose internal tension not only characterizes the first movement but also appears already at the beginning of the Andante grazioso. In addition, although this second movement is written in two-four metre, it repeatedly suggests the waltz. The Finale, in its “stringency with scrunching pomp” (Rudolf Stephan), clearly reveals itself as a march. In all the main ideas of this composition, one can hear that from his twelve-tone row Schoenberg takes the smallest possible interval with the greatest possible dissonance as a basis – the minor second, inverted to a major seventh in the second movement, as though the music is cautiously feeling its way before attempting great leaps, which it then does in abundance.
The difficulty of the solo part has already been mentioned. The extreme virtuosity is astounding, with its wide leaps, sequences of floating string harmonics, sudden dynamic changes and crazy double and multiple stops, with a playing technique that one associates more with gypsy melodies or Carmen fantasies than with the Second Viennese School: pizzicato in the left hand with simultaneous, directly overlapping arco bowed playing of other notes. This complexity is not an end in itself and, despite the transparency of the orchestral writing, can often barely be heard as such. Instead, it presents the solo instrument as an endangered existence: constantly on the brink of being overtaxed, proceeding at the risk of abject failure. “Every phrase is cleverly devised; he continually calls for tempo changes – for soloist, orchestra and conductor, an alpine expedition in the air of another planet” (Patricia Kopatchinskaja).
Overcoming and exaltation: Peter Tchaikovsky’s Fifth Symphony
Frolovskoye near the town of Klin outside of Moscow was the summer residence of Peter Tchaikovsky. In May 1888 he began work on a new symphony there, his fifth, but: “No ideas, no inclination! Still I am hoping gradually to collect material for a symphony,” he confided to his brother Modest. What actually troubled him went far beyond this one planned symphony, as he later wrote to Nadezhda von Meck: “I am often overcome with doubts, and I ask myself: hasn’t the time come to stop? Haven’t I overstrained my imagination? Has the spring perhaps run dry?” During that summer Tchaikovsky took up gardening as a hobby, which took his mind off other things and was perhaps conducive to art. The parallel found in his letters to Nadezhda von Meck is at any rate too obvious to be completely unconscious: “My flowers are developing – with a few exceptions – quite poorly and slowly; they will barely even blossom properly,” he wrote in June. A month later: “My flowers, which I feared would die, have nearly all recovered, and some have blossomed luxuriantly.” Three weeks after that he was able to announce: “I am so pleased that my symphony is finally finished.”
The struggle with Providence
Perhaps we should take the close association that Tchaikovsky saw in this collective growth process as an indication of the particular significance of this symphony, of an almost organic quality that connects it with his life. There can be no doubt that it – like the Fourth, which preceded it by ten years – was intended to “express everything for which there are no words, but which the soul wishes to express, and which requires to be expressed”. Specific programmatic notes on the first two movements are found in his notebook: “Introduction. Total submission to Fate or, what is the same, to the inscrutable designs of Providence. Allegro (I) Murmurs, doubts, laments, reproaches against XXX. (II) Shall I cast myself into the embrace of faith???”
“Fate” is a topos which runs through many of Tchaikovsky’s works, and dealing with this force is the “theme” of his Fifth Symphony. Its musical form is a motto which is presented in the introduction by two clarinets playing in unison and appears in each of the four movements. After the introduction it disappears for the time being, making way for an expansive movement with new themes. “Doubts, laments, reproaches” against the ominous XXX – by which Tchaikovsky was possibly referring to his homosexuality – are certainly only one element. The joys of a merry dance, a hope soaring ethereally upwards are also part of it, but these tender feelings are not fulfilled. From the abyss into which the movement sinks towards the end (the trumpets only briefly again allude admonishingly to a motif of the fate motto), the Andante ascends – the first melody is heard in the horn above the mysterious darkness of the opening eight bars of the strings. A second, somewhat more animated melody is assigned to the oboe: a “ray of light” illuminates the darkness, Tchaikovsky noted. The fate motif forcefully interrupts these delicate tones twice and is calmed again twice. A waltz continues the buoyant mood; not until the end of the brief dance does the fate motif steal into the triple metre – but the great transformation is already imminent. The Finale opens with the fate theme, but now solemn and majestic in E major – a first glimpse of a possible solution, which does not lie in overcoming or eliminating the prevailing powers but in accepting and adopting them. Until then, many a conflict must still be fought out. The major part of the movement is in E minor; the path to apotheosis leads through a great deal of turmoil and much confusion.
Kirill Petrenko chief conductor designate of the Berliner Philharmoniker, was born in the Siberian city of Omsk in 1972. At the age of 18, he moved with his family to Vorarlberg in Austria. Following his training as a conductor at the University of Music and Performing Arts Vienna, he worked from 1997 as an assistant and conductor at the city’s Volksoper; afterwards he was music director at the Meininger Theater from 1999 to 2002. In 2001, he first attracted international attention when he conducted Richard Wagner’s Der Ring des Nibelungen in the production of Christine Mielitz with designs by Alfred Hrdlicka. From 2002 to 2007, Kirill Petrenko was general music director of the Komische Oper Berlin. He has also appeared at the state opera houses in Munich and Vienna, the Semperoper Dresden, the Royal Opera House in London, the Metropolitan Opera New York, the Opéra Bastille in Paris, and the Maggio Musicale Florenz and the Salzburg Festival. From 2013 to 2015, he conducted a new production of Wagner’s Der Ring des Nibelungen at the Bayreuth Festival. In the autumn of 2013, Kirill Petrenko took up his post as general music director of the Bayerische Staatsoper, which he will hold until the end of the 2019/2020 season. On the concert stage, he has conducted the Vienna Philharmonic, the Staatskapelle Berlin and Dresden, the Symphonieorchester des Bayerischen Rundfunks, the Royal Concertgebouw Orchestra Amsterdam, the Cleveland Orchestra, the Chicago Symphony Orchestra, the London Philharmonic and the Israel Philharmonic Orchestra. Kirill Petrenko made his debut with the Berliner Philharmoniker in February 2006 with compositions by Bartók and Rachmaninov. In 2015, the orchestra elected him its future chief conductor. Most recently, he appeared with the Philharmoniker at their season opening concert in August 2018 conducting works by Strauss and Beethoven. In January 2019, he conducted a concert with the National Youth Orchestra of Germany at the invitation of the Foundation with a programme of works by Bernstein, Kraft, Shostakovitch and Stravinsky. He takes up office as chief conductor of the Berliner Philharmoniker at the beginning of the 2019/2020 season.
Patricia Kopatchinskaja was born in Moldova in 1977 in to a family of musicians; in 1989 she emigrated to Vienna with her parents. She studied composition and violin in Vienna and Bern. Her diverse repertoire ranges from baroque and classical, to re-interpretations of modern masterworks and new commissions. The violinist, who was artist in residence at the Berlin Konzerthaus, at London’s Wigmore Hall in the 2016/17 season and “artiste étoile” at the 2017 Lucerne Summer Festival, has performed as a soloist in Berlin with the Deutsches Symphonie-Orchester and the Staatskapelle, with the Symphonieorchester des Bayerischen Rundfunks, the Mahler Chamber Orchestra and renowned orchestras in Vienna, Paris, London and Tokyo, working with conductors such as Vladimir Ashkenazy, Andrey Boreyko, Pablo Heras-Casado, Teodor Currentzis, Vladimir Jurowski and Kent Nagano. Patricia Kopatchinskaja also gives concerts at major festivals (e.g. Edinburgh, Lucerne, Vienna, Salzburg, Montreux and Santander). Her chamber music partners include Sol Gabetta, Anthony Romaniuk, Jay Campbell and Polina Leschenko. Patricia Kopatchinskaja made her debut with the Berliner Philharmoniker in September 2014 as soloist in Peter Eötvösʼs Second Violin Concerto DoReMi under the direction of the composer. She last performed with the orchestra in February 2017 as soloist in György Ligeti’s Violin Concerto conducted by Sir Simon Rattle.