Zubin Mehta conducts Mahler’s Third Symphony
21 Dec 2008
Symphony No. 3 in D minor (98 min.)
Lioba Braun Alto, Women of the Rundfunkchor Berlin, Robin Gritton Chorus Master, Tölzer Knabenchor, Gerhard Schmidt-Gaden Chorus Master
None of Gustav Mahler’s other symphonies have a longer playing time than the Third, in which the composer even surpassed the monumentality of the Resurrection Symphony that preceded it. The Berliner Philharmoniker have a special relationship to this work; the second, third and sixth movements were premiered by the orchestra in 1897 under Felix Weingartner, before the composer himself conducted the first complete performance of the work in Krefeld five years later.
“My symphony will be something that the world has never heard before! The whole of nature finds a voice in it and tells of the kind of profound secrets that might be sensed in a dream!” Gustav Mahler declared while he was working on it. The key already makes the composer’s high expectations for the work clear, since, like Beethoven’s and Bruckner’s last symphonies, it is in D minor. Moreover, like Beethoven’s symphonic legacy, the orchestra is augmented by voices, and like Bruckner’s (unfinished) Ninth, the composition ends with a slow movement.
The symphony, which is subdivided into two parts, begins with a movement lasting more than thirty minutes which is characterized by marching songs and sounds of nature as well as shocking moments breaking in “with tremendous force”, in the words of the composer. Like its sister symphonies Nos. 2 and 4, the Third also contains a setting of a text from the Romantic poetry and song collection Des Knaben Wunderhorn (The Youth’s Magic Horn): a children’s and women’s chorus sing of heavenly life in response to the preceding fourth movement, in which a mezzo-soprano quotes words from Friedrich Nietzsche’s Also sprach Zarathustra: “Woe says: Be gone! But all joy seeks eternity!” The closing Adagio is an endlessly flowing, world-embracing hymn, which according to a programme that the composer later withdrew was supposed to express the language of love itself.
This performance of the work with the Berliner Philharmoniker in December 2008 was conducted by Zubin Mehta, who, since his debut in 1961, has returned to the orchestra’s podium nearly every season. The soloist for the concert was mezzo-soprano Lioba Braun, who is well-known to international audiences from several concerts with Claudio Abbado and her benchmark performances as Brangäne at the Bayreuth Festival.
Around the World in Six Movements
Gustav Mahler’s Third Symphony
Mahler was 33 years old and Kapellmeister of Hamburg’s Municipal Theatre in 1895 when his plan came to fruition for a work “in which the entire world would indeed be reflected – one is, so to speak, only an instrument played upon by the universe”. Writing a symphony, as he now defined it, meant “constructing a world with all the technical means at one’s disposal. The eternally new and changing content determines its own form.” He wrote to a friend that he was composing a work in seven movements with the title The Joyful Science – A Summer Morning’s Dream:
I. Summer marches in.
II. What the flowers in the meadow tell me.
III. What the beasts of the forest tell me.
IV. What the night tells me.
V. What the morning bells tell me.
VI. What love tells me.
VII. Life in heaven.
Similar lists, though with constantly evolving details, appear in several of Mahler’s letters and documents. The new work was for a time entitled Pan, intended as a “wild” depiction of nature. In this scenario, the first movement would be called “What the mountains tell me”; the “Night” of the fourth movement would represent “Humanity”; the “Morning Bells” of the fifth were now the “Angels”; “Love” in the sixth gave way to “God”; and the seventh movement disappeared altogether, to be transferred to the Fourth Symphony. But the basic idea remained: “In a sense my work is a musical poem, encompassing every stage of evolution, ascending stepwise. – It begins with lifeless nature and rises to the love of God!”
Later Mahler decided that his pointers to understanding the first three symphonies could be misleading and he declared: “Away with programmes that arouse false notions. Leave the audience its own thoughts on the work being performed; do not force it to read while the music is being played; do not teach it to be prejudiced!” He destroyed the old descriptions, and refused to provide new ones – nothing, however, indicates that he ever repudiated his originally stated programmatic intentions.
Before confronting the monumental opening movement (in 1896), Mahler had first to come to terms with the other parts (mainly in 1895). The symphony is launched with a rising fourth – an omnipresent interval in early Mahler. Eight horns in unison sound the call with a march theme that binds the whole work cyclically together. The first movement’s tempo indication, “Kräftig. Entschieden” – “Forcefully and resolutely”, is followed in the course of the work by markings like “sentimental”, “garish”, “with fearsome violence”, “with mysterious haste”, “crudely”, “nobly” – no extreme is shunned by a composer for whom a symphony was meant to encompass “the entire world”.
Concealed in the primeval utterance of this symphonic opening, whose “sounds of nature” Mahler stage-manages like raw aural elements, is a mighty sonata-form movement in D minor/F major. The remaining five movements are all grouped into a “second part”: movements 2 and 3 – a quasi-minuet and a quasi-scherzo – recapture something of the dance character of the Classical symphony; movements 4 to 6 – orchestral song, cantata movement, Adagio – despite their contrasting character, are treated by Mahler as a through-composed unit.
The third movement paraphrases Mahler’s early song Ablösung im Sommer. In bringing in a posthorn “as if heard from a great distance” and “played freely”, Mahler was not thinking of revolutionizing orchestration – Mozart had long ago used this evocative instrument in his Serenade K.320 – but rather of a poem by Nikolaus Lenau, Der Postillon: “Lovely was the night in May, / Silvery little clouds floated above...” – an ambivalent scene-setting which, like Ablösung im Sommer, is also preoccupied with death.
In movement 4, Lenau’s “May Night” darkens into Friedrich Nietzsche’s “world night”, as a solo contralto intones a text from Also sprach Zarathustra, a work whose “poetic fervour”, according to Mahler’s friend and colleague Bruno Walter, “had fired up the composer”. This leads directly into a choral movement, again featuring the solo contralto, on a text from Des Knaben Wunderhorn, the collection of “old German songs” by Achim von Arnim and Clemens Brentano, which so profoundly inspired Mahler in composing many of his earlier symphonies and lieder.
The Third Symphony concludes with a vast Adagio in D major, which has been called Mahler’s first Klangflächenkomposition, a 20th-century concept that refers to composition in layers, stressing mass and texture over clearly articulated melody and rhythm. The first theme of this grand orchestral hymn clearly pays homage to the finale of Brahms’s First Symphony – Mahler revered the “old man” and visited him at his summer retreats. But it also takes up the vehement, thrusting march theme of the first movement and, as Mahler described it with an allusion to Greek mythology, “finally brings Ixion’s fiery spinning wheel to a standstill”.
Lioba Braun studied church music and singing. The winner of a number of international singing competitions, she began her professional career with permanent contracts at the Karlsruhe Staatstheater and at Vienna’s two leading opera houses, before joining the Mannheim Nationaltheater, where she remained from 1993 to 2003, performing a repertory that included Eboli, Amneris, Santuzza, Countess Geschwitz, Venus, Ortrud and Kundry. She made her Bayreuth Festival debut in 1994, when she stepped in at the last minute for an ailing colleague, laying the foundations for her later career as a distinguished Wagnerian mezzo-soprano both in Bayreuth itself and throughout the rest of the world. Both as an opera singer and as a concert singer Lioba Braun has appeared at countless centres of music and at innumerable prestigious festivals, regularly working with such eminent conductors as Mariss Jansons, Claudio Abbado, Daniel Barenboim, Zubin Mehta and Riccardo Muti. She is particularly closely associated with the role of Brangäne, which she sang not only in Bayreuth in 1999 to tremendous critical acclaim but also in Tokyo in the autumn of 2000, when she appeared in a series of performances of Tristan und Isolde conducted by Claudio Abbado with the Berliner Philharmoniker. Berlin audiences first heard Lioba Braun with the Berliner Philharmoniker in February 2002 in two series of concerts, again under Claudio Abbado.
Zubin Mehta and the Berliner Philharmoniker can look back on a long musical partnership that started in September 1961. Mehta was born in Bombay in 1936 and studied under Hans Swarowsky at the Vienna Academy of Music. The winner of the 1958 International Conductors’ Competition in Liverpool and of the Koussevitzky Competition in Tanglewood, he was by his mid-twenties already principal conductor of the Montreal Symphony Orchestra, where he remained from 1961 to 1967, while holding a similar appointment in Los Angeles from 1962 to 1978. Also at this time he made his debut with the Vienna Philharmonic and replaced an ailing Eugene Ormandy at the helm of the Israel Philharmonic, becoming the Israel PO’s music director in 1977. Since 1985 he has also been principal conductor of the Teatro del Maggio Musicale in Florence: both institutions have named him their conductor for life. He was also principal conductor of the New York Philharmonic from 1978 to 1991. In addition to his engagements in the concert hall, Zubin Mehta has also appeared in many of the world’s leading opera houses and from 1998 to 2006 was general music director of the Bavarian State Opera and Orchestra in Munich. Among the numerous honours that Zubin Mehta has received are the United Nations’ Lifetime Achievement Peace and Tolerance Award in 1999, membership of the French Legion of Honour in 2001 and the Bavarian Order of Merit in 2005. His most recent appearance with the Berliner Philharmoniker was two years ago, when he conducted another Mahler symphony (No. 7). He will return in January 2009 for a programme of works by Elliott Carter, Beethoven and Strauss.
The Rundfunkchor Berlin, founded in 1925, is the oldest radio choir in Germany. Famous German conductors such as George Szell, Hermann Scherchen, Otto Klemperer and Erich Kleiber conducted concerts and radio broadcasts with the choir during the 1920s and 1930s. After the Second World War, principal conductor Helmut Koch established its reputation as a Handel specialist on tours which took it through most countries of Europe. Dietrich Knothe (1982 – 1993) developed the tradition of performing premieres of contemporary music; Robin Gritton took over the leadership in 1994. Since 2001 Simon Halsey has infected the Rundfunkchor with his enthusiasm and vitality.
Made up of 64 full-time professional singers, the choir appears in approx. 50 concerts worldwide each season. An impeccable and meaningful declamation of the text in any language required is the basis and starting-point for the choir’s work. It has built particularly close relationships with the Deutsches Symphonie-Orchester under Ingo Metzmacher, the Rundfunk Sinfonieorchester Berlin under Marek Janowski and the Berliner Philharmoniker under Sir Simon Rattle. Its high standard, wide-ranging repertoire and versatility are borne out by long list of award-winning CD releases. The recording of Brahms’ Deutsches Requiem under Sir Simon Rattle received the 2008 Grammy Award for the best choral recording. Under Halsey’s direction, the choir also initiated a number of new projects: specific youth programmes, traineeships for selected young professional singers and a sing-along concert once a year. With its series Broadening the Scope of Choral Music the Rundfunkchor Berlin explores a dialogue with other art forms in innovative and scenic projects.
The Tölzer Knabenchor was founded in Bad Tölz in 1956 by the conductor and specialist in the training of voices Gerhard Schmidt-Gaden. The wide musical range of the choir encloses vocal music of the Middle Ages up to modernity. Since 1970 the choir is based in Munich with its own studio in Munich-Solln. The universal training of the choir members is based on the discipline accepted voluntarily by each boy. Creativity, spontaneity and the joy of singing are as important as a highly developed technique. The various ensembles of the Tölzer Knabenchor give nearly 240 concerts and opera performances annually. Extensive concert-tours have led the Tölzer Knabenchor to China, Japan, the USA, Israel, England, France, Italy, Spain, Holland, Belgium, Poland, Austria and Switzerland. Many eminent conductors have worked or still work with them, among them Claudio Abbado, Daniel Barenboim, Leonard Bernstein, Karl Böhm, John Eliot Gardiner, Nikolaus Harnoncourt, Herbert von Karajan, Gustav Leonhardt, James Levine, Lorin Maazel, Seiji Ozawa and Sir Georg Solti. The soloists of the Tölzer Knabenchor sing in opera houses and the great festivals all over the world.